When wildlife becomes a nuisance and they have to be selectively removed the term used is Nuisance Wildlife Control. Whereas many wildlife species will coexist with humans some become a risk of transferring disease or they can even cause damage to properties. This risk then has to be managed in a professional and humane manner.
Characteristics of species that become a nuisance
One finds that species which do not have to consume a specific food often become a nuisance as they adapt to eating discarded litter and food emptied into trashcans. Animals that are not perceived as a direct threat also tend to fall in this category. If not humans will downgrade their status and seek to eliminate them. If animals can easily adapt to fragmented habitats they also run the risk of being classified as a nuisance. Humans moving into certain areas where there is wildlife will increase the odds for discord. Animals that can survive in the same landscapes occupied by humans are initially often regarded as adorable. Their status diminishes to the degree that humans can tolerate the animals due to habits such as chewing cables or dirtying the environment.
Methods used to solve the problem
Excluding the animals from an area is a practical solution except when it interferes with their natural movement. Modifying the habitat by limiting access to water or food is another way to manage the problem. Repellents that lead to changes in behavior of the animals may also be considered. One can deter them from feeding on plants by using repellants with bad taste or odor.
However, animals often discover that the repellants are not really harmful and they become accustomed to the taste or smell. The use of frightening devices is also often considered by experts. These can be of an auditory nature such as whistles, bells, sonic emitters or the like. Visual stimulation may also do the trick as can be seen when using lights, windmills or reflectors. But animals often return as they become used to these devices when used on a daily basis.
Legal and ethical considerations
One should always remain aware that there are laws applicable to controlling the activities of any wildlife. If a nest or a den is occupied one is probably not allowed to disturb it nor may one directly harm an animal. These laws are enforced by wildlife agencies and all responsible citizens should comply with them. At the same time there are ethical considerations. Many species may not be relocated to an area that is lacking in proper food or where competing species proliferate. Relocation during spring may lead to starvation of the young and should be avoided. Euthanasia of animals is also a very sensitive subject.
All in all, one should rather contact professional organizations that are not only trained in all applicable techniques but also stay up to date with the latest laws and regulations. More often than not they will be able to come up with a practical solution that complies to existing laws.